Treatment with CP-690550 resulted in reduced cell viability of NK-S1 and KHYG-1 cells but not in K562 cells. SBS Transit chief executive Gan Juay Kiat has resigned due to an incident of “personal indiscretion”, according to a report by The Straits Times on Friday (28 December). Gan Choon Beng is a practicing lawyer and is the Senior Director at Infinitus Law Corporation and head of its Corporate, Commercial and Technology Department.He graduated from the University of Singapore (now known as the National University of Singapore) in 1977 with an LLB (Hons.) Mr Gan first joined ComfortDelGro Corporation Limited as Group Corporate Planning Officer in February 2006. All samples were centrally reviewed by our hematopathologists. Contact Information. 2A) and constitutive phosphorylation of both JAK3 and STAT5 (Fig. This study is dedicated to Dr. Han Mo Koo. Through exome sequencing, we identified activating mutations of JAK3 that may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of NKTCLs. B, NK-S1 cell lysates were harvested for Western blotting, and the results showed that phosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT5 are IL-2–independent. The primer sequences used for validation are listed in Supplementary Table S4. Among these 4 members, JAK3 signaling is specifically related to T-cell development and proliferation (8) with loss-of-function mutations resulting in severe combined immunodeficiency characterized by the lack of T and NK cells (9). Several gene transcript annotation databases (CCDS, RefSeq, Ensembl, and UCSC) were used for transcript identification and for determining the amino acid change. Domain structure of JAK3 (bottom) and the positions of JAK3A572V(c.1715C>T) and JAK3A573V (c.1718C>T; top) identified through Sanger sequencing of NKTCL samples. Choon Kiat Gan is on Facebook. Heng, A. Gan, C.K. Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is particularly prevalent in Asian countries and some parts of Latin America. We are glad to play a part in our nation's 48th birthday celebration. Teh, S.T. Mr Gan Juay Kiat was appointed Chief Executive Officer of SBS Transit Ltd on 1 March 2010. All results are expressed as mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. FFPE tissue blocks from 61 patients with NKTCLs were procured for mutation analysis. Apart from 4 older cases that cannot be interpreted, all but one case were positive for EBER, regardless of JAK3 mutation status. Allen, W.S. Functional characterization of the JAK3 mutations support its involvement in cytokine-independent JAK/STAT constitutive activation leading to increased cell growth. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 569. A, NK-S1 cells were treated with 100 nmol/L JAK3 siRNA (si-JAK3) or control siRNA (si-Ctrl) for 24 hours before being subjected to proliferation assays up to 72 hours (right). B, cell viability was analyzed by MTS assay after the cells were treated with their respective treatment for 72 hours. IHiS SENIOR MANAGER ERNEST TAN CHOON KIAT, in charge of the cyber security of infrastructure at his company, in a message to the same chat group. Zhi Jiang Zang, Choon Kiat Ong, Ioana Cutcutache, Willie Yu, Shen Li Zhang, Dachuan Huang, Lian Dee Ler, Karl Dykema, Anna Gan, Jiong Tao, Siyu Lim, Yujing Liu, P. Andrew Futreal, Heike Grabsch, Kyle Furge, Liang Kee Goh, Steve Rozen, Bin Tean Teh, Patrick Tan Cancer Research, 1 January 2011 doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-1749 Join Facebook to connect with Choon Kiat Gan and others you may know. Gan Choon Beng has been a GBN Mentor since 2008 and has worked with many mentees in various areas of business. Identification and characterization of JAK3-activating mutations. Importantly, NK-S1 cells treated with JAK3 siRNAs exhibited a significant reduction in cell proliferation and also decreased autophosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT5, compared with cells treated with control siRNAs (Fig. To further confirm the involvement of JAK/STAT signaling in the survival of NKTCLs, we next evaluated the effect of a pan-JAK inhibitor, CP-690550, in NK-S1, KHYG-1, and K562 cells. Interestingly, several somatic heterozygous Janus kinase (JAK) mutations were found in 2 separate samples. Reciprocally, KHYG-1 cells transiently overexpressing a mutated JAK3 (JAK3A572V) cDNA showed IL-2–independent proliferation and autophosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT5 (Fig. These are some of the notable cases which SPD officers handled in 2011: In PP v Abdul Razak Bin Hamid and PP v Tan Chye Guan Martin, the accused persons were both heinous child molesters, dubbed the “Letterbox Molester” and “Heartbeat Molester” respectively.They engaged in ruses to con children into physical contact and committed the offences over 20 years and 11 years respectively. Tan, S.L. 4A and B). Presently, Khai Choon Gan occupies the position of Non-Independent Non-Executive Chairman for HL Global Enterprises Ltd., Non-Executive Chairman of Beijing Fortune Hotel Co., Ltd. and Managing Director at Hong Leong International (Hong Kong) Ltd. A, NK-S1, KHYG-1, and K562 cells were treated with CP-690550 for 48 hours, and the effect on STAT5 phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting. Commuters can also grab the Christmas tree-shaped cards hanging from the handrails to use as greeting cards. Cancer Discovery The JAK family of tyrosine kinases comprises 4 members: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, and TYK2. : 201815023K. 3A). I. Proliferative response and establishment of cloned cells. The presence of nonmalignant stroma (our samples contained at least 50% tumor content) or tumor subclones makes it difficult to assess whether these “heterozygous” tumors might actually represent a mixture of JAK3 homozygous–mutated cancer cells admixed with normal tissue. JAK3 siRNA or control siRNA (Dharmacon) were transfected into NK-S1 cell line using RNAiMAX (Invitrogen) according to the manufacturer’s protocols. NK-S1 (JAK3A572V homozygous mutant) and KHYG-1 (wild-type JAK3) cells were cultured with or without recombinant human IL-2 up to 7 days and followed by MTS assay. Ong, K.-W. Yeoh, K.A. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Gan’s connections and jobs at similar companies. Gan Chimeg. Copyright © 2021 by the American Association for Cancer Research. Lim, Administrative, technical, or material support (i.e., reporting or organizing data, constructing databases): S.L. 8). Lee, L.C. They also indicated that targeting the JAK/STAT pathway in this disease is a potentially effective therapeutic approach that warrants further investigation. Sino Group is one of the leading property developers in Hong Kong. The relative p-JAK3, p-STAT5, JAK3, and STAT5 levels in these cells were detected by Western blotting (top), and proliferation assays using these cells were conducted for 48 hours with or without IL-2 (bottom). The JAK3A572V and JAK3A573V mutations found in our samples were located at the JH2 pseudokinase domain that is known to have an autoinhibitory effect on the JH1 kinase domain. There is thus an urgent need to identify novel genetic aberrations and potential treatment targets in NKTCLs. Cells were seeded at 2 × 104 cells/100 μL/well in 96-well plates and treated with or without CP-690550 (Selleck Chemical, S5001) at various concentrations before being subjected to MTS assay (Promega). We compared our variants against the common polymorphisms present in dbSNP 131 and in the 1000 genomes databases to discard any common SNPs. Koo, S.Y. Gan Teng. Choon Kiat Gan और अपने अन्य परिचितों से जुड़ने के लिए Facebook में शामिल करें. We conducted whole-exome sequencing and identified Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) somatic–activating mutations (A572V and A573V) in 2 of 4 patients with NKTCLs. Koo, S.Y. These data are compelling and suggest a potential target for this otherwise fatal disease. Whole-exome sequencing was successfully conducted on fresh-frozen NKTCLs and paired blood samples from 4 different patients. Join Facebook to connect with Choon Kiat Gan and others you may know. Ong, P. Tan, B.T. One tumor harbored both JAK1Y652D and JAK3A572V mutations, whereas the other tumor harbored a JAK3A573V mutation. Lee, I. Cutcutache, W. Yu, C.C.Y. The train is decked with yuletide artwork including Santa hats and reindeer antlers on the windows which serve as photo opportunities, Channel NewsAsia reported. Facebook gives people the power to share and makes the world more open and connected. The JAK3A572V and JAK3A573V mutations were located at exon 12, in the Janus homology domain 2 (JH2) that negatively regulates the Janus homology domain 1 (JH1) kinase activity (Fig. The JAK3, JAK1, JAK2, and TYK2 mutation status in these samples was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of all coding exons. The molecular pathogenesis of natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is not well understood. Land Transport Authority (LTA) Singapore is a entity based in 1 Hampshire Road, Singapore, 219428, Singapore, which employs 908 executives. Gan has 3 jobs listed on their profile. KHYG-1 was obtained from the Japanese Collection of Research BioResources (28) and cultured in RPMI medium (Life Technologies) supplemented with heat-inactivated FBS (10%), equine serum (10%), and 200 IU/mL of recombinant human IL-2 (Novartis). Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. The coding exons of JAK3 were fully sequenced in these 3 cell lines, and we confirmed that only NK-S1 harbored a homozygous JAK3A572V mutation. Lim, Development of methodology: G.C. Tan, K. Tay, B.T. Between 8pm and 10pm from Dec 21-24, artists from the Band of Doodlers, the art collective behind the decorations, will be drawing portraits for commuters on the cards for free. Jak-STAT pathway is involved in the induction of TNF-beta gene during stimulation by IL-2, Activating alleles of JAK3 in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, Mutations in severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) due to JAK3 deficiency, Somatically acquired JAK1 mutations in adult acute lympho-blastic leukemia, Mutations of JAK2 in acute lymphoblastic leukaemias associated with Down’s syndrome, FERM domain mutations induce gain of function in JAK3 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, Jak3- and JNK-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Activation status of the JAK/STAT3 pathway in mantle cell lymphoma, JAK3 mutations occur in acute megakaryoblastic leukemia both in Down syndrome children and non-Down syndrome adults, A unique clonal JAK2 mutation leading to constitutive signalling causes polycythaemia vera, Somatic mutations of JAK1 and JAK3 in acute leukemias and solid cancers, Somatic mutations affect key pathways in lung adenocarcinoma, Activating mutations in human acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, Array-based genomic resequencing of human leukemia, Constitutive JAK3 activation induces lymphoproliferative syndromes in murine bone marrow transplantation models, The JAK kinase inhibitor CP-690,550 suppresses the growth of human polycythemia vera cells carrying the JAK2V617F mutation, CP-690,550, a therapeutic agent, inhibits cytokine-mediated Jak3 activation and proliferation of T cells from patients with ATL and HAM/TSP, The 2008 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms and beyond: evolving concepts and practical applications, KRAS mutation detection in paired frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) colorectal cancer tissues, An Epstein-Barr virus positive natural killer lymphoma xenograft derived for drug testing, A novel natural killer cell line (KHYG-1) from a patient with aggressive natural killer cell leukemia carrying a p53 point mutation, Lung Microbiome and Lung Cancer Prognosis, Pan-Cancer Analysis of HLA LOH as a Method of Immune Evasion, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Poon, G.E. However, this phenomenon was not observed in the K562 cells in which STAT5 phosphorylation is dependent on BCR/ABL1 (8) and not JAK3 (Fig. Lim, Supplied pathologic diagnosis for case series: L. Tan. Teh, S.T. Tan, T. Tang, S.L. The JAK/STAT pathway is a key component in normal hematopoiesis. Effects of CP-690550 on NKTCL cell lines. In total, 23 of 65 (35.4%) cases harbored JAK3 mutations. Janus Kinase 3–Activating Mutations Identified in Natural Killer/T-cell Lymphoma, Management of T-cell and natural-killer-cell neoplasms in Asia: consensus statement from the Asian Oncology Summit 2009, Clinicopathologic features and treatment outcome of mature T-cell and natural killer-cell lymphomas diagnosed according to the World Health Organization classification scheme: a single center experience of 10 years, International peripheral T-cell and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma study: pathology findings and clinical outcomes, P53, N- and K-Ras, and beta-catenin gene mutations and prognostic factors in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma from Hokkaido, Japan. JAK1 and JAK3 mediate IL-2 receptor signaling through phosphorylation of STAT transcription factors (7). Poon, W.S. He currently oversees The GBN Mentoring Program together with Seow Kiat Wang.. As expected, both the NK-S1 and KHYG-1 cells showed a reduction of phosphorylated STAT5 (Fig. A research-intensive university with an entrepreneurial dimension, NUS is ranked consistently as one of the world's top universities. Lim, Acquisition of data (provided animals, acquired and managed patients, provided facilities, etc. These results were further confirmed by high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis (Supplementary Fig. View Yuen Kin Pheng’s professional profile on Relationship Science, the database of decision makers. Teh, S.T. NK-S1, established from a previously described NKTCL xenograft (27), was cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM; Life Technologies) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated FBS and 10% equine serum. To determine the prevalence of JAK1 and JAK3 mutations in NKTCLs, we Sanger sequenced an additional 61 NKTCL formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cases. Ng, V. Rajasegaran, H.L. We also conducted Epstein-Barr virus–encoded RNA (EBER) testing on all cases. Amino acid changes corresponding to SNVs were annotated according to the largest transcript of the gene. A Christmas-themed MRT train has started plying the North-South and East-West Lines. ): G.C. Choon kiat menyenaraikan 6 pekerjaan pada profil mereka. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Lim, Study supervision: S. Rozen, B.T. JAK3A572V mutation causes constitutive JAK3 activity and IL-2–independent proliferation of NKTCL cells. The diagnosis of NKTCL was made according to the 2008 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues (24). JAK-mutant (NK-S1) cells showed IL-2–independent growth (Fig. The extent of drug-induced apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC (BD Biosciences) staining. By continuing to use Gov.sg, you accept our use of cookies. In parallel, 50% of extra-nasal cases possessed JAK3 mutations and 31.7% of nasal cases had JAK3 mutations. Ng, V. Rajasegaran, S. Rozen, B.T. He is a practicing lawyer and is a Partner at Infinitus Law Corporation and Head of its Corporate, Commercial and Technology Department. To date, transforming ability of the activating mutations of JAK3 (such as P132T, L156P, R172Q, E183G, Q501H, M511I, A572V, A573V, R657Q, and V722I) has been previously validated in Ba/F3 cells (8, 12, 19, 20). To decline cookies at any time, you may adjust your browser settings. DNA of frozen tissue and paired blood samples was isolated using a DNeasy blood and tissue mini kit and a QIAmp DNA blood midi kit (Qiagen), respectively, according to the manufacturer’s instruction. and was admitted to the Singapore Bar in 1978. eISSN: 2159-8290 Matched fresh-frozen tissue and peripheral blood samples were obtained from 4 consented patients with NKTCLs for whole-exome sequencing. 3B). Gan Xa. Total proteins were extracted with lysis buffer, resolved by SDS-PAGE gels, and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane. 2C and D). The molecular pathogenesis of natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is not well understood. For Sanger sequencing, PCR was carried out with Platinum Taq Polymerase (Life Technologies, catalog number 10966-083) and cycled at 95°C for 10 minutes; 39 cycles of 95°C for 30 seconds; 60°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 1 minute, and a final extension of 72°C for 10 minutes. Heng, A. Gan, S.T. The resulting products were run on an ABI 3730 DNA analyzer. Moreover, treatment of both JAK3-mutant and wild-type NKTCL cell lines with a novel pan-JAK inhibitor, CP-690550, resulted in dose-dependent reduction of phosphorylated STAT5, reduced cell viability, and increased apoptosis. We do not retain these email addresses. B, KHYG-1 cells were transiently transfected with wild-type JAK3 (JAK3 WT) or mutated JAK3 expression vectors (i.e., JAK3A572V). Subsequently, he was also appointed the Chief Executive Officer and Director of ComfortDelGro Bus Pte Ltd. The JAK1Y652D mutation was located in the JH2 domain as well. Koo, K.-W. Yeoh, C.C.Y. In contrast, JAK3 wild-type KHYG-1 cells were clearly IL-2–dependent (Fig. As such, it is possible that the number of homozygous tumors reported is actually an underestimate and that this value should be regarded as a lower limit. Join Facebook to connect with Kiat Gan and others you may know. Cells were harvested at indicated time intervals after IL-2 or CP-690550 treatment. Earlier this month, SMRT announced that trains themed after the upcoming Star Wars VII: The Force Awakens movie will start operating from mid-December. We conducted whole-exome sequencing and identified Janus kinase 3 ( JAK3 ) somatic–activating mutations (A572V and A573V) in 2 of 4 patients with NKTCLs. View Choon Chia's business profile as Infrastructure & Operation Director, Systems (Rail Asset O&M) at Land Transport Authority. Hence, targeting the deregulated JAK/STAT pathway could be a promising therapy for patients with NKTCLs. Teh, S.T. However, compared with the more common B-cell lymphomas, very little is known about its molecular characteristics and pathogenesis. Interleukin (IL)-2 is an essential cytokine required for the proliferation and activation of NK cells (6). A, the NK-S1 cells harboring JAK3A572V were able to grow in an IL-2–independent manner. Poon, K. Tay, C.C.Y. Conception and design: G.C. Ng, C.K. Ong, K. Tay, R. Quek, K.-W. Yeoh, L.C. Yuen Kin Pheng is Professional at Tasek Corp. Bhd. HRM difference curves deviating from the wild-type curve were considered to be harboring a mutation. Gan Teng (Reno) Gan Teng. Further validation of the prevalence of JAK3 mutations was determined by Sanger sequencing and high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis in an additional 61 cases. Data were analyzed by paired t test, and values significantly different from control are shown as *, P< 0.05; **, P< 0.005; ***, P< 0.001. ISSN: 2159-8274, Sign In to Email Alerts with your Email Address. Our findings have important implications for the management of patients with NKTCLs. Experiments were repeated at least 3 times.y. Ng, V. Rajasegaran, H.L. In accordance, transiently overexpressing a JAK3A572V in a JAK3 wild-type NKTCL cell line (KHYG-1) resulted in IL-2–independent cell proliferation and the activation of JAK/STAT signaling pathways. D, phosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT5 in KHYG-1 cells were IL-2–dependent. Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Discovery Online (http://cancerdiscovery.aacrjournals.org/). These results indicate that the JAK3-activating mutations are gain-of-function alleles and contribute to the constitutive activity of the JAK/STAT pathway in an IL-2–independent manner. Cornejo and colleagues (21) showed that when JAK3A572V retroviral–transduced bone marrow cells were transplanted into C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, there was a constitutive activation of JAK/STAT signaling which led to the development of fatal polyclonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Choon Kiat Gan. In summary, our studies identified, for the first time, frequent JAK3 mutations in NKTCLs. This study was approved by the SingHealth Centralized Institutional Review Board (CIRB), study number 2004/407/B. This latter difference was not statistically significant (Supplementary Table S3). Both NK-S1 and KHYG-1 cells showed a dose-dependent reduction in STAT5 phosphorylation. 4A) and cell viability in a dose-dependent fashion (Fig. Gan Choon Kiat, deputy director of the LTA's corporate transformation office, was quoted by Channel NewsAsia as saying that more themed trains will be rolled out in future. After blocking, membranes were probed with primary antibodies against phospho-STAT5 (Cell Signaling, catalog number 9356), STAT5 (Cell Signaling, catalog number 9363), phospho-JAK3 (Cell Signaling, catalog number 5031), JAK3 (Cell Signaling, catalog number 3775), and β-actin followed by either peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse or anti-rabbit secondary antibody. View Gan Chin Kiat’s profile on LinkedIn, the world’s largest professional community. There has been little progress in basic science and clinical research in this subtype of lymphoma, which continues to constitute a major challenge in managing these patients as there is currently no accepted standard first-line treatment for NKTCLs. S1). The cycling and melting conditions were as follows: 1 cycle of 98°C for 2 minutes; 39 cycles of 98°C for 5 minutes; 58°C for 10 minutes; 1 cycle of 95°C for 30 minutes; and a melt from 72°C to 95°C increasing at 0.2°C/s. In line with these observations, we identified the presence of activating JAK3 mutations in 35% of NKTCL tumors. Among the patients with JAK3 mutations, there were 17 heterozygous JAK3A572V, 2 homozygous JAK3A572V, 2 heterozygous JAK3A573V, 1 homozygous JAK3A573V, and 1 heterozygous with both JAK3A572V and JAK3A573V mutations. Choon Kiat Chen Solutions Director , China Mobile International Choon Kiat has more than 25 years in the Telco/ICT industry since attaining his degree in Computing Science(1994) and MBA(2000). We retained SNVs that passed additional quality filters (a quality by depth ≥5, a variant depth ≥5, a normal depth ≥5) and discarded any SNV close to a micro-indel or to several other SNVs. Ng, S.T. Lim, Writing, review, and/or revision of the manuscript: G.C. Captured DNA libraries were sequenced with the Illumina GAIIx Genome Analyzer, yielding 150 (2 × 75) base pairs from the final library fragments. Cogan Gan. Choon Kiat Gan नाम के लोगों की प्रोफ़ाइल देखें. Consistent with the high frequency of JAK3 mutations (35%) in NKTCLs, use of CP-690550 in the JAK3-mutant NKTCL cell line showed inhibition in the phosphorylation of STAT5 along with reduced cell viability. We use cookies to tailor your browsing experience. We offer the most extensive selection of academic programmes in Singapore, collaborating with leading universities worldwide to provide our students with diverse opportunities for overseas exposure. Only SNVs in exons or in canonical splice sites were further analyzed. View Ang Choon Kiat Amos’ profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. Ang Choon Kiat has 8 jobs listed on their profile. Signals were visualized with enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL; Amersham). It accounts for up to half of all mature TCL cases in Asia (1). Artnexus Design is the appointed creative agency for the NDP 2013 publicity production. Further validation of the prevalence of JAK3 mutations was determined by Sanger sequencing and high-resolution melt … NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. Besides hematologic neoplasia, nonhematologic cancers, including breast, stomach, and lung cancer, have also been found to harbor JAK3 mutations (17, 18). Sanger sequencing and HRM (25, 26) were used to confirm the JAK3 and JAK1 mutations identified and validate their prevalence in our NKTCL patient population. The train, which will run till Dec 27, was launched at Ang Mo Kio station by Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan, who rode it to Marina Bay station with nine students from Pathlight School. View the profiles of people named Choon Kiat Gan. We used Burrows Wheeler Aligner to align the sequence reads to the human reference genome NCBI built 37.1 (hg19) and then we ran SamTools to remove PCR duplicates. Lihat profil Choon kiat Gan di LinkedIn, komuniti profesional yang terbesar di dunia. If you don’t like our faces, listen to our fortnightly podcast E-Junkies where we lepak one corner with famous people, Your daily good stuff - AsiaOne stories delivered straight to your inbox, AsiaOne Online Pte Ltd. Company Registration No. 4C). Others With a Similar Name. The HRM curves were analyzed with the Bio-Rad Precision Melt Analysis Software. Yap, K.A. Lim, C. Goh, W. Yu, C.C.Y. Thank you for sharing this Cancer Discovery article. The single EBER-negative case was a cutaneous deposit taken from a patient with EBER+ nasal NKTCLs (Supplementary Table S3). See more people named Choonkiat Gan. 2B). Natural killer (NK) cells as a responder to interleukin 2 (IL 2). In this study, we conducted whole-exome sequencing to identify somatic mutations in protein-coding genes of NKTCL tumors to shed light on their pathogenesis and to uncover potential new therapeutic targets, which are urgently needed. Lihat profil lengkap di LinkedIn dan terokai kenalan dan pekerjaan Choon kiat di syarikat yang serupa. Known somatic mutations in NKTCLs, such as TP53, KRAS, and NRAS (4), identified by exome sequencing were further validated by Sanger sequencing in the same tumors (Supplementary Table S2). Lim, Analysis and interpretation of data (e.g., statistical analysis, biostatistics, computational analysis): G.C. All 3 missense mutations were predicted by PolyPhen to be damaging (5).

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